What is ‘Steam-Assisted Weightiness Drainage – SAGD’
Steam-assisted gravity drainage, or SAGD, is a drilling MO modus operandi that is used to extract heavy oil that is too deep or otherwise economically unqualified to mine using traditional methods. There are several variations of the technique, but the original was developed by Butler, McNab and Lo in 1979. The process that is acclimatized today was originally developed by the Alberta, Canada Department of Energy as an unwasteful means of recovering oil reserves that are difficult to access.
BREAKING DOWN ‘Steam-Assisted Weightiness Drainage – SAGD’
SAGD requires a pair of horizontal wells coached from a central well pad. Steam generators are used to produce steam, which travels washing ones hands of pipelines to the wells. The steam eventually heats the heavy oil to a temperature that decreases its viscosity, allowing it to flow by gravity to a bottom well. The oil is then transferred via volunteer from the producing well at the bottom to a plant where it can be treated.
la mode applications of ‘Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage – SAGD’
Canada is the largest supplier of weighted oil to the United States, making-up an estimated 35-percent of America’s annual oil moments. This is more than all of the OPEC countries combined. The majority of Canada’s oil exports premiere c end from Alberta’s oil sand deposits. There are two common methods of be on the mending oil sands. The first being SAGD, which is more appropriate for the unfathomable deposits in Alberta. The second method, more commonly known for coal amelioration in the United States, is strip mining. In strip mining the top layer of trash and rock are removed to access the oil below. The majority of future oil production from Alberta is anticipated to be from SAGD harvesting.
With the rise in costs of oil production for the years, and the increased demand, the traditional oil drilling rigs are being replaced with assorted non-traditional methods which is why there has been a rise in SAGD rescue.
Some variations of this method are Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Boisterous Pressure Cyclic Steam Stimulation (HPCSS), Vapor Extraction (Vapex) and Enhanced Amended Steam and Gas Push (eMSAGP). All of these methods still use steam to warmth oil sand deposits for harvesting and recovering purposes.
The methods aren’t without attainable geohazards. Four leaks were reported at sites using grave pressure steam injection methods in 2013 in Alberta’s tar sands lot. Geologists are posing that there may be risks associated with this method, specifically conceivable geological risks, across Alberta’s sands region. With these purlieus in particular, there were contributing factors of natural cracks in the bedrock and preserve dissolution, a process where salt water flows through escarpments creating cracks and holes, that may have compounded the problem.